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基于水力压裂模拟实验的声发射破裂机制研究
The cracking mechanism study of acoustic emission in large-scale hydraulic fracturing experiment
投稿时间: 2017-06-12  最后修改时间: 2017-08-23
DOI:
中文关键词:  水力压裂  岩石力学  声发射  破裂机制  剪切破裂  张性破裂
英文关键词:Hydraulic fracturing  rock mechanics  acoustic emission  fracture classification  tensile crack  shear crack
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
梁天成 中国石油勘探开发研究院 liangtc69@petrochina.com.cn 
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中文摘要:
      水力压裂室内模拟实验可以模拟各种地层条件下的压裂实验,实验中利用声发射设备对裂缝的起裂和延伸的过程进行实时动态监测,实验后对形成裂缝的形态进行直接观察,从而为压裂理论的研究和论证提供一种重要的手段。本文利用声发射技术对砂岩、煤岩、页岩三类岩石水力压裂模拟实验进行了监测,对声发射数据进行了分析,并把日本混凝土材料协会(JCMS-III B5706 2003)定义的两个参数成功的应用于水力压裂模拟实验。研究表明:用声发射信号的平均频率和RA值两个参数联合评价压裂模拟实验的破裂机制是可行的,可以区分张性破裂和剪切破裂;致密砂岩产生张性破裂,天然裂缝较发育的煤岩和页岩不但存在张性破裂,也存在一定数量的剪切裂缝,天然裂缝发育,水力裂缝与天然裂缝干扰后,易发生剪切破坏。这些结果可用于指导水力压裂现场微地震监测。
英文摘要:
      The large-scale hydraulic fracturing experiment system can simulate a variety of laboratory simulation experiments under the condition of many formations, acoustic emission equipment is used to monitor the crack initiation and extension in real-time through the process of fracturing experiment, after the experiment we can see the shape of cracks in the form of direct observation, thus it provides an important tool for the fracturing theory research and experimental verification. In this paper, we use three lithologic rocks-sandstone, coal, shale rock to simulation fracturing experiments, acoustic emission were monitored in the process of fracturing experiment, and the data of acoustic emission are analyzed. Average frequency(Fa) was used in combination with RA value in a Japanese code for concrete (JCMS-III B5706 2003), the two argument successfully applied to hydraulic fracturing simulation experiments. It shows that there is feasible to use the Fa value and RA value of acoustic emission to evaluate fracture mechanism in fracturing simulation experiment, it can be distinguished tensile crack and shear crack. Tight sandstone produce tensile fracture, because of the presence of abundant natural fractures, coal rock and shale not only exist tension fractures, there are a number of shear cracks, hydraulic fractures with natural fractures interference prone to form shear failure. These results can be used to guide the on the micro-seismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing field.
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